In , Garden added an eighth intelligence, naturalist Bennett, School systems must realize that all children do not learn in the same ways, and teachers must…. Howard Gardner 's multiple intelligences theory identifies eight different learning styles that individuals are capable to learn from.
He stated that our DNA and exposure to different environments and situations throughout our lives, makes it unlikely for two individuals to have identical intelligence profiles. Multiple intelligences…. Based on a number of I. Many people believed you could only learn one way, by listening to a teacher lecture in front of the classroom. Tests like IQ tests determined how smart you were.
How can you define intelligence? In Howard Gardner 's theory of multiple intelligences he says that there are nine distinct intelligences. With each form of intelligence comes a unique set of learning styles that help students learn. With all of these different ways students…. Everyone has different types of learning styles and those learning styles vary among each individual.
We can have multiple interests as well as; we can also have multiple learning styles too. Essays Essays FlashCards. Browse Essays. Show More. The main problem with Existential intelligence is that it pertains to deriving meaning from their lives, assigning values to each meaning, and figuring how to apply that to their life. Since cultures differ for everyone, they value everything in a different matter too, making it hard to measure Existential intelligence at all.
Hopefully with more exploring and researching, Existential intelligence will become less confusing and begin helping people understand life in a whole. Smith says Gardner even found Existential intelligence a bit complex and distant from the other eight, which is why.
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Read More. The development of MI-based learning strategy has not been reported in the previous studies. The characteristics of MI-based teaching strategy developed in this study can be seen from several aspects as follows:. In other words, this strategy can be applied by all teachers on all subjects according to the applicable curriculum. So far, interests and talents are not developed in a classroom, but in non-formal activities.
Determination of MI and SPS as dependent variables due to these two variables are very important for students. The SPS are the unique skills resulted from science lesson. Padilla stated that students cannot be expected to excel at the skills if they have not experienced or been allowed to practice.
Instead students need to be given opportunities to work with these skills in different content areas and contexts. By giving students repetitive exercises to train science process skill, they will be trained and mastered it.
The Multiple Intelligences: A New Way of Looking at Paper Writing – Nail That Paper
The results of this study will change teaching strategies in the future from academic ability to MI oriented and focus on the potential of each student. Basic Theories o f t he Developed Learning Strategy. The key of MI theory is that all human beings have eight intelligences that are independent each other with varying degrees. Through this learning strategy, interests and talents serve as a means to learn the subject matter.
In an effort to understand the new experience, individuals associate new knowledge with prior knowledge and build new meaning. Vygotsky believes that cognitive ability comes from social relations and is influenced by socio-cultural backgrounds. According to Vygotsky social interactions with others sparked the emergence of new ideas and enrich the intellectual development of students. This idea is the basis of collaborative learning, applied in this research with appropriate challenges and assistance from more capable teachers or peers, students move forward in their nearest development zone, where new learning takes place.
There were only small amount researches on multiple intelligences that try to improve the multiple intelligences themselves. Researches by Chuang et al.
EFL Teachers’ Multiple Intelligences and Their Classroom Practice
This article describes the results of experiment on the development of MI based teaching strategy implemented in science lesson. In the introduction section, the background of the research and the theoretical basic of the developed strategy are explained. This study employed quasi experimental research design. By using stratified random sampling, two schools were selected, the Public Junior High School JHS 1 representing high academic achievers and the Public JHS 24 representing low academic achievers based on the national exam score.
In each school, 2 two classes were selected, 1 one control class was taught using traditional strategies such as lectures, demonstrations and group discussions, and 1 one experimental class was taught using strategies based on applied MI theory strategy. The samples were students selected from both schools.
To avoid the bias, the control and experimental classes were taught by the same teachers. The teachers are those who used to teach in the schools. The MI-strategy developed in this study was designed based on a series of instructional events by Gagne The MI-strategy consists of six stages namely 1 Self-reflection, where students tell about themselves, their study habits and hobbies, etc.
The activities at stage 1 to 4 were carried out in a group with various dominant types of intelligence while activities at stage 5 were carried out in a group of students who have similar dominant intelligence. Then, activities at stage 6 were carried out individually. The characteristic of this learning strategy lies in step 5 , in which students were grouped based on the dominant type of intelligence. The traditional strategies applied in control class consisted of lecture, discussion, and demonstration method. Then after explaining the lesson objective, the teacher explained the subject matter by using lecture and demonstration method.
The students then worked together on the worksheet, discussed, and present it in the class. The lesson ended with formulating conclusions by the students under the teacher guidance. The teaching and learning process was conducted for 12 weeks involving one teacher and five observers. The teacher taught using the specified teaching strategy, while the observers made observation of the teaching and learning process. The instrument consists of 56 questions which are divided into 8 parts based on types of MI as follows, linguistic, kinesthetic, musical, visual-spatial, intrapersonal, interpersonal, logical-mathematical, and naturalist.
The instrument applied Likert Scale, which each part contained 7 questions that have to be answered by selecting 4 options, namely; absolutely agree score 4 , agree score 3 , disagree score 2 , and absolutely disagree score 1. In SPS test, students were tested by conducting 5 skills as follows: questioning, predicting, data analyzing, classifying, and concluding. The quality of these skills was assessed by a rubric.
Science process skills were evaluated 3 times using three worksheets, each of which conducted after lesson 1, lesson 2, and lesson 3. The quality of SPS instrument was determined by content validity and reliability test. The instrument was validated by 5 five validators who assess 1 the content, 2 the construction, and 3 the language of the instrument. Validity of the instrument is decided into three criteria; feasible, feasible by improvement, and not feasible.
The calculation of the reliability test used intra-class correlation coefficient ICC. Based on the validator judgment, the SPS assessment instrument is valid and feasible to use. The calculations of reliability test using intra-class correlation coefficient indicate that all aspects of SPS assessment are reliable with reliability criteria ranging from sufficient to high. The ICC for questioning aspect is. The differences on improvement of MI between both groups were identified by calculating the gain score of MI before and after the learning process.
The data normality was tested using Saphiro Wilk and the data homogeneity was tested using Levene test. Transformation of both data using SPSS 22 resulted normal and homogeny data. The highest MI performance of group is determined by comparing the average-normalized gain N-gain of both groups, while the highest performance among three SPS assessment scores was determined by post hoc test using LSD test.
Acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis was conducted by comparing the Sig. Descriptive data of MI scores of both groups before and after the learning processes are presented in Table 3. The multiple intelligence scores of students for both groups before and after the learning process can also be seen on Figure 1. Figure 1. Linguistic intelligence was slightly increased, while the mathematical-logic intelligence tends to remain. The descriptive analysis of gain score of control and experimental groups can be seen on the Table 4 below. As it can be seen from Table 4, the difference of gain scores was observed between control and experimental groups.
The gain score of experimental group 4. The gain scores difference of eight types of MI between experimental and control class were tested using t-test. The results indicated that there were significant differences of MI gain scores between the two groups sig. The results are presented in Table 6 and Table 7. The summary model above indicated that learning strategy, as a predictor, correlates with MI development by correlation coefficient of. Coefficient of determination of. Furthermore, based on the statistical calculation, the regression model can be generated as follow.
In addition, the t-value and the significance level 0. It also indicates that the regression model generated is significantly used to predict the effect of learning strategy on the development of MI. In the control group, SPS were not applied, therefore measurements are unnecessary.
As indicated in Table 8, the SPS mean scores improved from the initial to the final assessment. This was calculated by the differences between the initial and the final score. Among the aspects of SPS, questioning skill reached the highest improvement. Fig ure 2.appid.store/wp-includes/queensland/2750.php
Inclusion and the Multiple Intelligences: Creating a Student-Centered Curriculum
The post hoc test results also indicated that the mean final SPS score 3. The study tried to reveal that both learning strategies the traditional and the MI-strategy do effect on MI development and science process skills of the students. Likewise, the simple linear regression proved that significant relationship observed between learning strategy and the development of MI. Learning strategy contributed The rest were affected by other factors.